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  • Impact of Liquefied Natural Gas Composition Changes

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plays an important role in the global natural gas market. Global demand for natural gas will grow over the coming years [20,21].Diversification of supplies of this eco-friendly fuel is the key element of the energy security of each country [22,23,24].Liquefied natural gas is transported by ships and stored in suitable storage tanks.

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  • LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's ...

    2010-11-1 · JTJ 304-2003: Design regulation for liquefied natural gas wharves. (4) GB50183-2004: Fire prevention standards for design of oil and natural gas projects. A new chapter was added in this version to deal with LNG issues. It defines the layout-, spacing-, fire prevention-, …

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  • Energy-efficient polymeric gas separation membranes

    2013-8-16 · Natural gas purification. Natural gas is a complex mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, ethane, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, inert gases, and trace components of many other compounds, such as BTEX aromatics (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) . The actual composition of natural gas varies depending on the well, and delivery ...

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  • Methanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines ...

    2019-1-1 · US methanol capacity more than doubled in 2015, with prices coming down as cheap natural gas from shale rock became increasingly available, resulting in the US displacing China as the world’s low cost methanol producer . To put things in perspective, a large oil refinery typically processes about 500,000 barrels of crude oil per day.

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  • Improving the use of liquid biofuels in internal ...

    2014-1-1 · The rise, decline, and recent huge jump in biodiesel consumption can be seen, together with the gradual fall of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) consumption. Natural gas consumption (compressed (C)NG and liquefied (L)NG in the figure) has shown a steady rise, and it might be postulated that the current low cost of natural gas resulting from the exploitation of shale gas reserves could lead to further significant …

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  • Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Isotope Geochemistry

    The d values on the curved fractionation lines on the upper diagrams plot along nearly straight lines on the lower d 18 O vs. D plot. The 'length' of the evaporation lines on the d 18 O vs. dD plot reflect the range of values of water produced during total evaporation under different humidities. For example, the short line for 95% humidity ...

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  • Natural gas upgrading using a fluorinated MOF with

    2018-10-29 · The resulting pore size of 2.7 Å for the DFT-optimized 0.5CO 2 /0.5H 2 S-loaded Al-structure (Supplementary Fig. 16) is significantly lower than the kinetic diameters of …

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  • Emerging hydrovoltaic technology | Nature

    2018-12-6 · The hydrogen bond energy is 0.16 eV (ref. 26), which is weaker than a covalent O–H bond of 4.76 eV but stronger than a van der Waals strength of ~0.08 eV (ref. 27).

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  • Phase/State Transitions of Confectionery Sweeteners ...

    2010-12-13 · Lenz and Hartel (2005) used S/CS to characterize CMF of jelly candies and caramels and found that high ratios (greater than 1 for caramel and 2 for jellies) always led to crystallization, while lower ratios (less than 0.4 for caramel and 0.8 for jellies) always indicated inhibition of graining. However, the ratio, S/CS, was not a sufficiently ...

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  • Research Progresses of Flash Evaporation in

    Liquid is overheated and evaporated quickly when it enters into the environment with lower saturation pressure than that corresponding to its initial temperature. This phenomenon is known as the flash evaporation. A natural low-pressure environment and flash evaporation have unique characteristics and superiority in high altitude and outer space. Therefore, flash evaporation is widely used in ...

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  • Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Isotope Geochemistry

    The d values on the curved fractionation lines on the upper diagrams plot along nearly straight lines on the lower d 18 O vs. D plot. The 'length' of the evaporation lines on the d 18 O vs. dD plot reflect the range of values of water produced during total evaporation under different humidities. For example, the short line for 95% humidity ...

    Get Price
  • Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas | Union of

    2014-6-19 · Burning natural gas does produce nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are precursors to smog, but at lower levels than gasoline and diesel used for motor vehicles. DOE analyses indicate that every 10,000 U.S. homes powered with natural gas instead of coal avoids the annual emissions of 1,900 tons of NOx, 3,900 tons of SO2, and 5,200 tons of ...

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  • Supramolecular fluorescence sensor for liquefied

    2019-9-13 · As LPG is liquefied under pressure of ca. 1 MPa at room temperature, which is much lower than the required pressure for compressed natural gas (20–32 MPa), LPG has a …

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  • Impact of Fuel Composition on Gas Turbine Engine ...

    2019-7-31 · The Taurus 60 7901 is a single shaft engine running to a constant speed. Since both diesel (DF-2) and kerosene have lower heating values (LHV) less than natural gas, more fuel is needed to reach operating TRIT. This additional mass flow slightly increases cycle pressure ratio as the cycle rematches.

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  • Carbon footprint of global natural gas supplies to

    2020-2-11 · Chinese CBM fields have slightly higher initial emissions but a significantly lower EUR than those of conventional gas (0.016 versus 0.16 bscm per well), thus higher average GHG intensity ...

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  • Sustainability | Free Full-Text | Impact of

    Using a unique United States box office data set, we investigate the impact of environmental sentiment on corporate environmental and financial performance of the United States listed firms. The influence of mass media on public and investor sentiments is well documented in the existing literature. However, little is known about the effect of movies, although they may influence the public more ...

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  • EX-99.2 - SEC

    2020-3-25 · Throughout 2019, we received natural gas from Argentina from four different natural gas suppliers pursuant to interruptible supply agreements. These agreements expire at the end of 2020. We also received Argentine natural gas in 2019 from a fifth supplier, YPF S.A., pursuant to a gas supply agreement that expires at the end of 2025.

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  • EX-99.2

    2021-3-5 · In 2020, we received natural gas from Argentina from four different natural gas suppliers pursuant to interruptible supply agreements. These agreements expire at the end of 2021. We also received Argentine natural gas in 2020 from a fifth supplier, YPF S.A.. We have a gas supply agreement with YPF S.A. that expires at the end of 2025.

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  • Phase/State Transitions of Confectionery Sweeteners ...

    2010-12-13 · Lenz and Hartel (2005) used S/CS to characterize CMF of jelly candies and caramels and found that high ratios (greater than 1 for caramel and 2 for jellies) always led to crystallization, while lower ratios (less than 0.4 for caramel and 0.8 for jellies) always indicated inhibition of graining. However, the ratio, S/CS, was not a sufficiently ...

    Get Price
  • Natural Gas and California - cpuc.ca.gov

    Natural gas on the utilities' backbone pipeline systems is then delivered to the local transmission and distribution pipeline systems, or to natural gas storage fields. Some large volume noncore customers take natural gas delivery directly off the high-pressure backbone and local transmission pipeline systems, while core customers and other ...

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  • Analysis of Natural Convection in Liquid Nitrogen

    The evaporation rate was recorded for each run by direct reading of the Hastings gas flow meter. Modelling: Based on the observations and experimental analysis as well as the results established by Rebiai (1985) and Belmedani (1994) and for obvious experimental reasons and in regard to the difficulties and contradictions met for the validation ...

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  • Combustion Engine vs Gas Turbine- Water consumption

    Combustion Engine vs Gas Turbine: Water consumption. Electric power represents one of the largest uses of water globally. In 2010, water use for energy production accounted for 583 billion cubic meters – 15% of the world’s water withdrawals.In some countries the energy sector accounts for even high percentage of water withdrawals.

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  • Hydrogen Storage for Mobility: A Review

    2019-6-19 · (100 wt %) and 0.01 MJ/L, respectively. Some physico-chemical properties of hydrogen and natural gas are compared in Table1. Another important performance metric is the speed of kinetics. This term designates the rate at which the system can release hydrogen upon …

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  • Research Progresses of Flash Evaporation in

    Liquid is overheated and evaporated quickly when it enters into the environment with lower saturation pressure than that corresponding to its initial temperature. This phenomenon is known as the flash evaporation. A natural low-pressure environment and flash evaporation have unique characteristics and superiority in high altitude and outer space. Therefore, flash evaporation is widely used in ...

    Get Price
  • Reading: Natural Gas | Geology

    Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants, gases, and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in natural gas. Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.

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  • (PDF) Oil and gas production handbook An

    Oil and gas production handbook An introduction to oil and gas production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry. Eta Betrand. Sachin Gawle. Ahmad Rohman. Christian Fransen. Rama Dian. ABENG FAITH. Gerdo Spur. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A …

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  • Identification of Critical Factors and Their ...

    Natural gas services. If you're a residential, business or industrial customer and you need to install, remove or move a natural gas line, or upgrade your natural gas service, we’ve got online service request tools here for you. If you have any questions, call us or email us using the contact information below.

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  • Natural gas services - FortisBC

    Natural Gas Dog Days Fuelling The Uptrend By Dimitris Kontoulis - Jul 11, 2021. Natural Gas futures on the Nymex had a volatile week before closing 1% lower than the previous one at 3.67. EIA ...

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  • High‐Resolution Water Footprints of Production of

    2018-3-26 · 1 Introduction. The United States is the largest producer of goods and services in the world (The World Bank, 2017).This economic activity relies on freshwater as a fundamental input to economic production (Rushforth & Ruddell, 2016; Wang et al., 2017).Despite the importance of water to the U.S. economy, it is often undervalued, inefficiently utilized, and overexploited (Marston & Cai, 2016).

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  • Re‐evaluation of pectin (E 440i) and amidated pectin

    In the updated safety evaluation (JECFA, 2016a), the Committee concluded that at the new maximum proposed use level of pectin in infant formula (0.2%), the estimated exposure of infants aged 0–12 weeks would be up to 360 and 440 mg pectin/kg bw per day at mean and high consumption, respectively. The margins of exposure for average and high ...

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  • 15 Largest Gas Companies in the US - Yahoo

    2019-5-23 · The thermodynamic and economic analysis of a transcritical carbon dioxide power cycle is coupled with solar thermal subsystem and LNG subsystem. Solar thermal subsystem consists of parabolic trough collectors and a thermal storage tank, and the Copper-Therminol VP1 nanofluid is used in this subsystem. In most hours of the day, the solar subsystem based on Copper-Therminol VP1 …

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  • Exergoeconomic analysis and optimization of a ...

    The Natural Gas Act of 1938. In 1938, the federal government became involved directly in the regulation of interstate natural gas with the passage of the Natural Gas Act (NGA). This act constitutes the first real involvement of the federal government in the rates charged by interstate gas transmission companies.

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  • » The History of Regulation NaturalGas.org

    2021-7-23 · A room-temperature supersaturated recrystallization method is developed to rapidly synthesize all-inorganic halide perovskite QDs with blue, green, and red luminescent quantum yields of 70%–95% and line-widths less than 35 nm. The origins of the optical superiority are proposed to be the observed 40 meV exciton binding energy, surface self-passivation effect, and quantum-well band …

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  • Advanced Functional Materials - Wiley Online Library

    2021-3-13 · A. Naseri, M. Bidi, and M. H. Ahmadi, “Thermodynamic and exergy analysis of a hydrogen and permeate water production process by a solar-driven transcritical CO 2 power cycle with liquefied natural gas heat sink,” Renewable Energy, vol. 113, pp. 1215–1228, 2017. View at: Publisher Site | …

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  • Energy, Exergy Analysis, and Optimizations of

    The utilization of such techniques in simple gas turbine or combined cycle plants leads to improvement of flexibility and overall performance. Its scope is to review the various methods used to provide gas turbine power augmentation through inlet cooling and focus on the rising opportunities when these are combined with thermal energy storage.

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  • Thermal Energy Storage For Gas Turbine Power

    Due to emerging climate change concerns coupled with growing global energy demand, eventually the world needs to move toward manufacturing, transportation, heating and electricity generation with lower carbon emissions including increased use of nuclear power, and hydro, wind, geothermal, solar, and tidal sources [1–4].However, only nuclear power, is high reliability, and of potentially ...

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  • Current Status of Reactors Deployment and Small

    We are an Open Access publisher and international conference Organizer. We own and operate 500 peer-reviewed clinical, medical, life sciences, engineering, and management journals and hosts 3000 scholarly conferences per year in the fields of clinical, medical, pharmaceutical, life sciences, business, engineering and technology.

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  • Forward Osmosis as Concentration Process: Review of ...

    2020-10-14 · In the past few years, osmotic membrane systems, such as forward osmosis (FO), have gained popularity as “soft” concentration processes. FO has unique properties by combining high rejection rate and low fouling propensity and can be operated without significant pressure or temperature gradient, and therefore can be considered as a potential candidate for a broad range of concentration ...

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  • Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Polymer ...

    2020-9-21 · Abstract High-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes are a technology characterized by simplified construction and operation along with possible integration with, e.g., methanol reformers. Significant progress has been achieved in terms of key materials, components and systems. This review is devoted to updating new …

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  • Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas

    2021-3-11 · New facility-level methane (CH4) emissions measurements obtained from 114 natural gas gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in 13 U.S. states were combined with facility counts obtained from state and national databases in a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate CH4 emissions from U.S. natural gas gathering and processing operations. Total annual CH4 emissions of 2421 (+245/–237) Gg ...

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  • Global Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission

    EPA-430-R-19-012 September 2019 Global N011-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emission Projections & Marginal Abatement Cost Analysis: Methodology Documentation Report Prepared for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Atmospheric Programs, Climate Change Division Washington, DC Prepared by RTI International 3040 E. Cornwallis Road Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 Abt Associates, Inc. …

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  • Emerging hydrovoltaic technology | Nature

    2020-2-11 · Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) risks and opportunities can affect an entity's capacity to meet its financial commitments in many ways. S&P Global Ratings incorporates these considerations into its ratings methodology and analytics, which enables analysts to factor in short-, medium-, and long-term impacts--both qualitative and quantitative--to multiple steps of their credit …

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  • ESG Industry Report Card: Autos And Auto Parts | S&P ...

    This paper presents a review of the current research activities in the field of gas nanosensors. Nanomaterials are characterized by physical and chemical properties that differ from their macroscopic counterparts and, in particular, by an enhanced chemical reactivity even at room temperature. This effect has stimulated the development of chemical sensors based on several different nanomaterials.

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  • Conductometric Gas Nanosensors - Hindawi

    2018-4-12 · Ni-rich layered cathodes such as NMC-811 or NCA (LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2), however, currently have a significantly shorter cycle life and a lower thermal stability and so are less safe 41.

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  • Performance and cost of materials for lithium-based ...

    2021-7-23 · A room-temperature supersaturated recrystallization method is developed to rapidly synthesize all-inorganic halide perovskite QDs with blue, green, and red luminescent quantum yields of 70%–95% and line-widths less than 35 nm. The origins of the optical superiority are proposed to be the observed 40 meV exciton binding energy, surface self-passivation effect, and quantum-well band …

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  • Advanced Functional Materials - Wiley Online Library

    1979-3-1 · Almost exactly five years after the first oil shock, the second began. The parts of the puzzle are arranged quite differently this time around, but the two central pieces are the same. The upheaval in Iran has meant an interruption of supply and a loss to world production already as great as that from the 1973 embargo; the tight world oil market which had been predicted, just last fall, only ...

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