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  • Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the roll‐to ...

    2021-2-2 · While the global output parameters total volume of liquid V liquid in the domain and total evaporation rate do not vary with mesh resolution, the local output parameters like polymer thickness δ (ie, after evaporation of the solvent) and fluid film thicknesses H 2 and H 3 deviate strongly at low resolution meshes. When approaching a mesh size of 360 000 triangular …

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  • A review on commercial-scale high-value products that can ...

    2019-10-8 · As ethylene oxide has a lower price than acrolein, Shell’s process is economically more favorable. Prices for 1,3-PDO are suggested to be around 1.76/kg (2008) [ 188 ] and, 2.20/kg (2005) [ 189 ], and 1.45/kg [ 190 ].

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  • Water, Climate, and Economy in India from 1880 to the ...

    2021-3-1 · What is aridity? The heat in the tropical region dries up surface water. The average evaporation rate is a function of (among other variables) available surface water and the heat of the sun. During summer in the Himalayas or the Arctic, the rate reaches extremely high levels. In the deserts, the rate is extremely low throughout the year.

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  • Cost-effective iron-based aqueous redox flow batteries for ...

    2021-5-1 · Moreover, the employment of the PBI has a significant influence on the cost of the whole system as well. The price of PBI provided on the lab scale is 0.67/g, while the price of Nafion powder is 4.70/g. This price is 4–5 times lower than the lowest cost predicted by DuPont for mass production of Nafion 112 . Above all, the adoption of the PBI membrane can greatly enhance the …

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  • The Shadow Price of Irrigation Water in Major Groundwater ...

    2019-4-18 · Shadow prices of water for agricultural crop production are found roughly to be between 0.01 and 0.25 US/m 3, with most estimated prices smaller than 0.10 US/m 3. If other sectors are included in the analysis, shadow prices are found to be higher.

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  • Estimating the Natural Flow Regime of Rivers With Long ...

    2018-2-9 · Mean annual flows gradually decreased at an average rate of 0.1 m 3 /s/yr, and annual minimum flows gradually increased at an average rate of 0.03 m 3 /s/yr during the 20th century. However, annual maximum flows decreased abruptly in 1949 by 51%, from an average of 273 m 3 /s to an average of 135 m 3 /s.

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  • Conflicts – Oil Exploration and Water - Zabbey - 2017 ...

    2017-7-13 · The pipeline failure rate per 1000 km and year in 2004 was 6.40 in Nigeria, 15 times higher than the Western European value of 0.43. 26 This is called “a double standard” in the report. 26 The TNPs suffered an incidence of operational oil spills at a rate of more than 130 times greater than the European average in the period 2006–2010. 31, 32

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  • Healing the world: a geosynthetics solution ...

    2021-2-17 · Another good reason to continue fighting poverty is that wealth appears to be a major factor promoting environmental consciousness and no longer seems to be an obstacle to ecological durability: when people are confident that their children will live in good conditions, be educated to prepare their future, and live longer, they become more concerned by the quality of their …

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  • Energy Applications of Magnetocaloric Materials ...

    They showed that GdSi 2 Ge 2 and LaFe 11.384 Mn 0.356 Si 1.26 H 1.52 had TEWIs that were always lower than that of a vapor‐compression plant. Furthermore, they showed that the TEWI of an AMR cycle using a FOMT material was always better than that of one using a SOMT material.

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  • Heat and moisture exchangers and breathing system filters ...

    2010-11-30 · As discussed already in the first part of this review [], heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are intended to conserve a portion of the patient’s exhaled heat and moisture and condition inspired gas by warming and humidifying it []; breathing system filters are intended to reduce the transmission of microbes and other particulate matter in breathing systems [] when the patient’s …

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  • What is Hydrology? - USGS.gov | Science for a changing

    2019-4-18 · However, as we focus on the top groundwater-depleting countries in the world, a relatively low shadow price of irrigation water also indicates that nonrenewable groundwater is used inefficiently. The comparison of shadow prices between crops within a country thus provides clues to where groundwater overuse can be reduced with minimal loss of ...

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  • The Shadow Price of Irrigation Water in Major Groundwater ...

    2018-11-1 · Ammonia has recently started to receive attention internationally as a consequence of the primary benefits outlined in the previous section. For example, Japan has been looking for renewable alternatives for their energy consumption requirements over the last few decades, due to lack of natural energy resource.

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  • Ammonia for power - ScienceDirect

    2021-3-1 · As surface water dries up, the rate falls extremely quickly. The rate of evaporation (0 to 20 mm) that prevails from April to June in nearly all of India except the Bengal delta and the southernmost regions of the peninsular, like Kerala, tends toward the range that characterizes the great deserts of the northern hemisphere. 3

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  • Water, Climate, and Economy in India from 1880 to the ...

    2021-1-23 · With a correlation of 0.959, the GP was stronger than other methods. This is while the ANN was found to be more suitable for cause–effect mapping. Alsumaiei applied an ANN to the prediction of the daily rate of E P in hyper-arid climates in Kuwait. With reference to the obtained Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients (varying in [0.405, 0.755]), the ...

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  • Quick integrative optimizers for minimizing the error of ...

    2008-8-14 · [7] The study focuses on the lower reaches of the Tarim River between the Taklamakan and Kuruke deserts. This area is known as the “green corridor” which protects the station road along the river. [8] The problems of drying-up and ecosystem deterioration coexist in most arid river basins that were subject to short-term benefit development in the world.

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  • Ecohydrological responses on water diversion in the lower ...

    2008-1-31 · The denaturation temperatures were skin collagen 25.0 ± 26.5 °C, bone collagen 29.5 ± 30.0 °C and fin collagen 28.0 ± 29.1 °C, lower than porcine collagen. Collagen from fish waste can be utilised in industrial level only for supplementing the skin of land vertebrates, and as alternatives to mammalian collagen in foods, cosmetics and ...

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  • Fish industry waste: treatments, environmental impacts ...

    2017-7-13 · The pipeline failure rate per 1000 km and year in 2004 was 6.40 in Nigeria, 15 times higher than the Western European value of 0.43. 26 This is called “a double standard” in the report. 26 The TNPs suffered an incidence of operational oil spills at a rate of more than 130 times greater than the European average in the period 2006–2010. 31, 32

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  • Conflicts – Oil Exploration and Water - Zabbey - 2017 ...

    2009-3-10 · The four relevant criteria for selecting a laser are power, wavelength, stability and noise. Traditionally, water-cooled argon-ion lasers have been used for DLS because they provide high power (hundreds of mW), short wavelengths (488 nm and 514 nm), good power stability (±1%) and low optical noise (below 0.5% rms from 10 Hz to 2 MHz).

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  • A versatile, low-cost approach to dynamic light scattering ...

    2021-5-23 · Part 3 examines the global ocean energy balance over an annual cycle month-by-month to identify the role of atmospheric water in regulating the energy balance.. Part 1: Observed Ocean Surface Temperature Regulation – Upper Limit. Ocean surface temperature observations show that less than 10% of open ocean surface water exceeds an annual average surface …

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  • Global monthly water stress: 1. Water balance and water ...

    2011-7-12 · 1. Introduction [2] The existing imbalance of water availability and water demand causes water scarcity to be one of the most pressing environmental issues in the world today. Water demand is defined here as the volume of water required by users to satisfy their needs. Surface fresh water is the most readily available resource to meet the water demand of agriculture (i.e., …

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  • Anthropogenic and climatic influences on carbon fluxes ...

    In most parts of eastern North America, POC changes were less than 0.01 g C m −2 yr −1. In most areas of the GOM subregion, POC export did not change as much as that in the other two subregions. Changing rates in the majority of this subregion were less than 0.01 g C m −2 yr −1. In the MAB subregion, increased POC exports were found in ...

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  • Crystallization in Confinement - Meldrum - 2020 -

    in which J is the nucleation rate, V d is the volume of a droplet, N d is the number of droplets, and t is the time. The probability of observing nucleation within an array of droplets P ( t ), is therefore significantly smaller than within a bulk experiment, where for example, 1000 spherical droplets of diameter 100 µm have a total volume of ...

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  • A review on commercial-scale high-value products that can ...

    2019-10-8 · The demand for fossil derivate fuels and chemicals has increased, augmenting concerns on climate change, global economic stability, and sustainability on fossil resources. Therefore, the production of fuels and chemicals from alternative and renewable resources has attracted considerable and growing attention. Ethanol is a promising biofuel that can reduce the …

    Get Price
  • Energy Applications of Magnetocaloric Materials ...

    They showed that GdSi 2 Ge 2 and LaFe 11.384 Mn 0.356 Si 1.26 H 1.52 had TEWIs that were always lower than that of a vapor‐compression plant. Furthermore, they showed that the TEWI of an AMR cycle using a FOMT material was always better than that of one using a SOMT material.

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  • Estimating the Natural Flow Regime of Rivers With Long ...

    2019-4-30 · This chapter provides an interdisciplinary review of the drought literature. Droughts are widely perceived as hydroclimatic hazards. In reality droughts are socioenvironmental phenomena, produced by admixtures of climatic, hydrological, environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural forces. The complexity and context specificity of drought confound severity and impact …

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  • Droughts | Annual Review of Environment and Resources

    2018-12-4 · Unconventional oil and natural gas extraction enabled by horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is driving an economic boom, with consequences described from “revolutionary” to “disastrous.” Reality lies somewhere in between. Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution and even water use compared with …

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  • The Environmental Costs and Benefits of Fracking | Annual ...

    2021-2-17 · The United Nations program ‘Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ establishes 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to guide decisions taken by nations and organisations over the next 15 years ().The SDGs address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental …

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  • Healing the world: a geosynthetics solution ...

    2010-11-30 · As discussed already in the first part of this review [], heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are intended to conserve a portion of the patient’s exhaled heat and moisture and condition inspired gas by warming and humidifying it []; breathing system filters are intended to reduce the transmission of microbes and other particulate matter in breathing systems [] when the patient’s …

    Get Price
  • An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl ...

    Of all the micronutrients, sunflower is most susceptible to boron (B) deficiency, from reports around the world. However, in North Dakota, B rate experiments with soil B levels as low as 0.2 ppm showed no sunflower yield response with B application. Thus, no micronutrient application, including B application, is needed in North Dakota.

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  • Sunflower Production Guide — Publications

    2020-3-2 · More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water; however, most of it is not suitable for human consumption. The magnitude of all water resources on the Earth is approximately 1.4 billion cubic kilometers, which roughly 97.5% of it placed in the oceans and only 2.5% could be found as freshwater in the atmosphere, icebergs, lakes, rivers and groundwater and just 0.014% …

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  • Hybrid renewable energy systems for desalination ...

    2021-2-17 · The United Nations program ‘Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ establishes 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) to guide decisions taken by nations and organisations over the next 15 years ().The SDGs address the global challenges we face, including those related to poverty, inequality, climate change, environmental …

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  • Healing the world: a geosynthetics solution ...

    Risks to global aggregated economic growth due to climate change impacts are projected to be lower at 1.5°C than at 2°C by the end of this century (medium confidence). {3.5.2, 3.5.3} The largest reductions in economic growth at 2°C compared to 1.5°C of warming are projected for low- and middle-income countries and regions (the African ...

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  • Estimating the Natural Flow Regime of Rivers With Long ...

    They showed that GdSi 2 Ge 2 and LaFe 11.384 Mn 0.356 Si 1.26 H 1.52 had TEWIs that were always lower than that of a vapor‐compression plant. Furthermore, they showed that the TEWI of an AMR cycle using a FOMT material was always better than that of one using a SOMT material.

    Get Price
  • Chapter 3 — Global Warming of 1.5 ºC - IPCC

    2017-8-24 · This manuscript provides a bird’s eye view on energy in buildings. We discuss how energy policy leads to building standards that affect innovation in the building sector. We review current and future materials and solutions for the building envelope (insulation and glazing), renewable energy generation and energy storage, and demonstrate how the integration of …

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  • Energy Applications of Magnetocaloric Materials ...

    2010-11-30 · As discussed already in the first part of this review [], heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are intended to conserve a portion of the patient’s exhaled heat and moisture and condition inspired gas by warming and humidifying it []; breathing system filters are intended to reduce the transmission of microbes and other particulate matter in breathing systems [] when the patient’s …

    Get Price
  • Energy in buildings—Policy, materials and solutions ...

    2020-6-2 · Studies of the physicochemical characteristics, group, and fractional composition of low-viscosity base oils with various nature were carried out. The influence of the composition of these oils on their low- and high-temperature characteristics was studied. Studies of the influence of the nature and composition of the dispersion medium on the physicochemical properties of low …

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  • Google Translate

    Google's free service instantly translates words, phrases, and web pages between English and over 100 other languages.

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  • An overview of the uses of per- and polyfluoroalkyl ...

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are of concern because of their high persistence (or that of their degradation products) and their impacts on human and environmental health that are known or can be deduced from some well-studied PFAS. Currently, many different PFAS (on the order of several thousan Recent Open Access Articles Environmental exposure and impacts

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  • Energy Applications of Magnetocaloric Materials ...

    They showed that GdSi 2 Ge 2 and LaFe 11.384 Mn 0.356 Si 1.26 H 1.52 had TEWIs that were always lower than that of a vapor‐compression plant. Furthermore, they showed that the TEWI of an AMR cycle using a FOMT material was always better than that of one using a SOMT material.

    Get Price
  • SELECTED ASPECTS OF WARMWATER FISH CULTURE

    2021-2-17 · All-male seed production. A widespread problem in tilapia culture is early sexual maturation and breeding of fish in the grow-out phase. This phenomenon results in unwanted seed production and overcrowding. Under these conditions food becomes limited, resulting in the production of small fish (50–100 g) which may command a lower market price.

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  • Ultrawide‐Bandgap Semiconductors: Research

    To avoid this non-uniformity, the offcut deviation across a 5-cm wafer must be low, less than 0.1°. 42, 43 From geometric considerations, the bow radius for a 5-cm wafer must be greater than 30 m; and for a 10-cm wafer must be greater than 60 m. These large bow radii are very difficult to achieve in …

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  • Fruit processing | Orange Book

    Most Brazilian citrus plants have much higher capacity. The world’s largest orange juice plant, Citrosuco in Matao, Brazil, can take in 60 million boxes (2.4 million tonnes) of fruit during a season. In most other orange-growing regions, citrus processing plants are considerably smaller than those in Florida and Brazil.

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  • Material selection for supercritical CO2 transport - TWI

    At lower CO 2 pressures, a 50/50 blend of water/glycol resulted in 50% reduction in corrosion rate of ordinary carbon steel when compared to a system devoid of glycol [Hesjevik et al, 2003]. A recent report on low temperature experiments (at circa 31°C) in a high pressure CO 2 environment (approximately 79.3bar) suggested a similar outcome ...

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  • A review on commercial-scale high-value products that can ...

    2019-10-8 · The demand for fossil derivate fuels and chemicals has increased, augmenting concerns on climate change, global economic stability, and sustainability on fossil resources. Therefore, the production of fuels and chemicals from alternative and renewable resources has attracted considerable and growing attention. Ethanol is a promising biofuel that can reduce the …

    Get Price
  • Bioethylene Production from Ethanol: A Review and Techno ...

    2017-3-31 · However, all cases, except for the case of bioethanol from biochemical processing, would be profitable if BECCS is taken into account. Another solution to lower the production costs and to save energy in the process is the integration of the ethylene production unit with a 1st and 2nd generation ethanol production unit.

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  • Crystallization in Confinement - Meldrum - 2020 -

    in which J is the nucleation rate, V d is the volume of a droplet, N d is the number of droplets, and t is the time. The probability of observing nucleation within an array of droplets P ( t ), is therefore significantly smaller than within a bulk experiment, where for example, 1000 spherical droplets of diameter 100 µm have a total volume of ...

    Get Price